Calcitonin - the hormone of hypocalcemic action, which is produced by special cells in thyroid, thymus and parathyroid glands humans and other mammals or animals.
As medications, salmon, human and pig calcitonin is used, and this hormone can also be synthesized.
The degree of activity of the thyroid hormone calcitonin is expressed in Units or ME. This indicator can be determined using a radioimmunological or biological research method. One Units - this is the amount of hormone that causes rats to decrease blood calcium levels by 10%. 1 ME is 0.2 mcg salmon calcitonin(synthetic).
The tool is released
- at ampoules1 ml each (hormone content - 50 or 100 IU in each);
- as infusion fluidsin vials of 2 ml (100 or 40 IU);
- as aerosol, 14 doses per bottle (50 or 100 IU).
Hypocalcemicinhibitor bone resorption.
Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics
The hormone takes an active part in the regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism. They must also participate in these processes. thyroid hormone and ergocalciferol.
The drug has the ability to retain calcium in the bones and the body with diseases such as malignant steolysis, Paget's diseaseat osteoporosis with a high level of min. sharing. Also, the drug increases the intensity of the allocation calcium, sodium and phosphorus from ureareducing their reverse absorption in renal tubules. It is important to note that this process takes place only if calcitonin is increased, the level does not fall below normal.
The hormone has the ability to reduce gastric secretion and excretion pancreatic hormonesat Duodenal ulcerwhile mobility Gastrointestinal tract and intestinal motility do not change. Also, the medicine has the ability to lower the pain threshold.
Calcitonin analysis is performed to diagnose various diseases, most often associated with the thyroid gland (medullary calcinoma, pheochromocytoma, hyperparathyroidism) Calcitonin hormone norm for women (reference values) ranges from 0 to 1.46 pmol per liter. The norm of calcitonin in the blood in men is from 0 to 2.46 pmol per liter. The direct breakdown of the homon in the blood occurs in about 6-8 minutes. The process is greatly accelerated by physical activity.
With subcutaneous and iv administration, the maximum concentration of the hormone is observed after 60 minutes, the drug is excreted after 1.5 hours, with urine.
Indications for use
The drug is prescribed:
- at Paget's diseasespontaneous bone resorption, imperfect osteogenesis, aseptic necrosis of the femoral head;
- for treatment osteoporosis (steroid, senile, parathyroid, postmenopausal);
- while slowing down the process of splicing fractures;
- for treatment fibrotic dysplasia;
- at traumatic and radiation osteomyelitis;
- if occurs zonal pathological bone remodeling people who are fond of sports;
- at periodontal disease, Sudek's syndrome, hypercalcemia, myeloma, vitamin D hypervitaminosis;
- if detected metastases in the bones;
- for the prevention of fractures and violation of the integrity of the bones after prolonged immobilization of the patient;
- at osteolysis, osteopenia, acute pancreatitis;
- at familial hyperphosphatemia.
Direct contraindications to the use of the drug are:
- hypersensitivityto the active substance;
- pregnancy and lactation;
- nasal aerosol cannot be used in chronic rinite and under the age of 18 years, due to the limited experience of use in this age group.
The most common adverse reactions: various allergic actions, tachycardia, tides, collapsestrong decline HELL, swellingtaste disturbance, arthralgia.
At infusions and injections were observed: nausea, headache, diarrheavomiting pharyngitis, gastralgia, myalgia, cough, pain, taste and vision disorders, hyperemia and pain at the injection site. There are also reports of occurrence nocturia, pain in the eyes, swelling of the feet, anaphylactic shock and death (one case, death occurred as a result of anaphylaxis).
After using the aerosol, you may experience: damage to the nasal mucosa, rhinitissneezing sinusitisdry mucous membranes, nosebleeds.
Instructions for use (Method and dosage)
The drug is administered intramuscularly, subcutaneously, intravenously or intranasally in the form of an aerosol.
According to the instructions for use of calcitonin, treatment with the drug should occur under the supervision of a doctor. The dosage and method of administration are selected by a specialist.
In severe cases, the daily dosage of calcitonin is calculated at 5-10 ME per kilogram of the victim’s weight. You can administer the drug drip for at least 6 hours.
For the treatment of chronic diseases, 5 or 10 are prescribed ME per 1 kg of weight per day, divided into 2 doses.
On average, 100 or 400 are administered intranasally MEper day, divided into several receptions.
The course of treatment is from 14 days to a month, then the dosage can be reduced and the course extended to 6 weeks.
As a rule, with a lack of hormone in the body, signs appear hypocalcemia - spontaneous muscle twitching, paresthesia and others.
When administered intravenously or subcutaneously, more than 1000 MEvomiting and nausea may occur.
At reception intranasally no cases of overdose have been reported. HypocalcemiaI am not developing.
Drug interaction does not occur or is not described.
Terms of sale
The drug should be stored in its original sealed packaging, without direct sunlight, not higher than 4 degrees Celsius.
During the first administration of the drug, it may develop hypocalcemianeed to have on hand calcium gluconate for emergency assistance.
Particular care must be taken by persons prone to allergies. During the introduction of the drug, a doctor should be nearby.
Before starting therapy, it is recommended that skin test funds and determine the level of calcium in the blood. If the patient has a calcium level of less than 10 mg and a reaction to the drug is observed, Calcitonin should not be administered.
At Paget's disease and when taking the drug in the blood serum, the level is significantly reduced alkaline phosphataseslows down bone resorption, splitting intensity collagen. Indicators change six months or 2 years after the start of hormone intake.
Using salmon calcitonin a person can develop resistance. It is proved that this condition rarely occurs (15%) when using the drug for less than 2 years. In 30-60% of patients, specific antibodies.
If the patient has hypercalcemia, you should constantly monitor the level of calcium in the blood.
With prolonged use of the drug, it is recommended to study the urine sediment for the presence of urinary cylinders.
To treat osteoporosisin parallel with calcitonin it is recommended to prescribe calcium and vitamin D.
During treatment with a nasal spray, the condition of the nasal mucosa, septum and nasal concha, vessels of the mucous membrane in the nose should be periodically checked.
Smoking does not affect the incidence of nasal bleeding, sinusitisetc.
When managing mechanisms or transport and taking the drug, special care must be taken.
During pregnancy and lactation
Calcitonin is excreted in breast milk, lactation must be stopped. You can not prescribe a remedy for pregnant women.
The drug is prescribed according to the results of tests for Calcitonin in Invitro or any other laboratory, if necessary. Reviews from taking hormones are good. Adverse reactions develop infrequently.
Calcitonin price, where to buy
The price of calcitonin can vary greatly depending on the form of release and the manufacturer.