Medication

Alprazolam

Structure

Alprazolam is a white crystalline powder with excellent solubility in methanol or ethanol, but is soluble in water at a physiological pH level. Each tablet is intended for oral use and contains 0.25, 0.5, 1 or 2 mg of active ingredient alprazolam.

Auxiliary ingredients:

  • lactose monohydrate;
  • corn starch;
  • sodium benzoate;
  • microcrystalline cellulose;
  • colloidal silicon dioxide;
  • povidone;
  • sodium docusate;
  • magnesium stearate.

Release form

  • tablets 0.25 mg;
  • 0.5 mg tablets;
  • 1 mg tablets;
  • 2 mg tablets.

Pharmachologic effect

Alprazolam has antidepressant, hypnotic, tranquilizing, muscle relaxant central, antiepileptic effect. Therefore, it is prescribed for the treatment of elimination worries, muscle relaxation.

Also, the drug has anticonvulsant activity and has a moderate hypnotic effect. Under the influence of the medicinal product, the patient shortens the time of falling asleep, and the duration of sleep, on the contrary, increases with the almost complete exclusion of nighttime waking.

Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetics

CNS agents of class 1,4 benzodiazepines exert their effects by binding to stereo-specific receptors in several parts of the central nervous system. Clinically, all benzodiazepines cause dose dependence of the central nervous system, so they are always prescribed with great care.

Absorption: After oral administration, Alprazolam is readily absorbed. Peak plasma concentrations are reached from 1 to 2 hours after administration. Plasma levels are proportional to the dose of the active substance. In the dose range of 0.5 to 3 mg, peak levels of 8 to 37 ng / ml were observed.

Distribution: the active substance of this drug binds in an amount of almost 80 percent with a protein in human serum. The highest proportion of metabolic binding / elimination is in serum albumin.

Alprazolam is actively metabolized in the human body, primarily in cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and two major plasma metabolites: 4-hydroxyAlprazolam and α-hydroxyAlprazolam. Plasma concentrations 4-hydroxyAlprazolam and α-hydroxyAlprazolam in relation to a constant concentration of Alprazolam is always less by 4%. The active substance and its metabolites are excreted from the body mainly with urine.

Indications for use Alprazolam

Alprazolam tablets are prescribed for treatment panic disorder with or without agoraphobia.

Panic disorder characterized by repeated unexpected panic attacks, i.e. discrete periods intense fear or discomfortwith at least four (or more) symptoms that develop suddenly and peak in the next 10 minutes:

  • accelerated heart rate;
  • sweating;
  • trembling or shaking;
  • feeling of difficulty breathing;
  • feeling of suffocation;
  • chest pain or chest discomfort;
  • nausea or abdominal distress;
  • dizziness, instability, loss of coordination, or fainting;
  • paresthesia (numbness or tingling sensations);
  • chills or flushing.

Attention: the doctor who decides to use this drug for a period of more than 8 weeks should regularly review the indications for the use of Alprazolam and reassess the usefulness of the drug for a particular patient.

Contraindications

Alprazolam tablets are contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to this drug or other benzodiazepines, as well as excipients that make up this drug.

These pills can be used to treat patients with open angle glaucomabut are contraindicated in patients with acute form of the disease.

Side effects

The information in the subsection on the side effects of Alprazolam tablets is based on the combined data of placebo-controlled 5, 6, and 8-week clinical trials of patients suffering from panic disorder.

Nervous System Disorders:

  • drowsiness;
  • dysarthria;
  • lack of coordination;
  • memory impairment;
  • fatigue;
  • depression.

The following data were obtained during the study of patients undergoing treatment with Alprazolam for 6, 8 weeks:

Disorders of the nervous system:

  • memory impairment;
  • dysarthria;
  • lack of coordination;
  • mental disorders;
  • ataxia;
  • impaired attention;
  • paresthesia;
  • dyskinesia;
  • hypesthesia;
  • excessive drowsiness.

Infections and infestations:

  • flu;
  • upper respiratory tract infections.

Mental disorders:

  • depression;
  • decreased libido;
  • disorientation;
  • confused consciousness;
  • depressed mood;
  • constant feeling of anxiety.

Metabolic and nutritional disorders:

  • decreased appetite;
  • increased appetite;
  • anorexia.

Violation of the gastrointestinal tract:

  • dry mouth
  • constipation;
  • nausea.

Reproductive system disorders:

  • dysmenorrhea;
  • sexual dysfunction;
  • premenstrual syndrome.

Disorders of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue:

  • joint pain;
  • muscle pain;
  • pain in the limbs.

Vascular Disorders:

  • the tides.

Respiratory Disorders:

  • dyspnea;
  • allergic rhinitis.

Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue:

  • itching;
  • burning.

Also, when taking Alprazolam, other adverse reactions occur that are extremely rare, and therefore are indicated only in highly specialized literature. It is worth noting that the following side effects occur in 1 out of 100 patients.

Disruption of the CCC:

  • frequent: heart palpitations;
  • infrequent: sinus tachycardia.

Disruption of the ENT organs:

  • frequent: Vertigo
  • infrequent: ringing in the ears, pain in the ears.

Eye diseases:

  • frequent: blurred vision;
  • infrequent: dilated pupils, photophobia.

Gastrointestinal Disorders:

  • frequent: diarrhea, vomiting, dyspepsia, abdominal pain;
  • infrequent: dysphagia, hypersecretion of the salivary glands.

Common violations:

  • frequent: malaise, weakness, chest pain;
  • infrequent: hyperthermiathirst, acute reaction to heat and cold, swelling, a feeling of nervous tension, lethargy, weakness, a feeling of intoxication, tightness in the chest, loss of control over the limbs.

Disorders of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue:

  • frequent: back pain, cramps, muscle twitching.

Mental disorders:

  • frequent: irritability, insomnia, nervousness, derealization, increased libido, anxiety, agitation, depersonalization;
  • infrequent: apathy, aggression, anger, euphoric mood, Logorrhea, mood swings, dysphonia, hallucinations, suicidal tendency, hypomania, psychomotor retardation.

Urinary tract disorders:

  • frequent: difficulty urinating;
  • infrequent: frequent urination, urinary incontinence.

Respiratory Disorders:

  • frequent: nasal congestion, hyperventilation;
  • infrequent: sensation of suffocation, nasal, runny nose.

Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue:

  • frequent: increased sweating;
  • infrequent: rash, urticaria.

Alprazolam, instructions for use (Method and dosage)

The instructions for use of Alprazolam indicate that the medicine is prescribed for oral administration 2-3 times a day. Taking this drug is not tied to eating. Doses are selected individually by the attending physician depending on the severity of symptoms, as well as the patient's response to the drug.

At the first stage of treatment, the drug is prescribed in minimum doses - 0.25-0.5 mg / day with a subsequent increase. It is recommended to increase the dose of the drug gradually in the evening and afterwards in the afternoon.

Older people are advised to prescribe a dose of 0.25 mg 2 or 3 times a day. If necessary, subsequently, the dose can be increased to 0.5-0.75 mg / day, but this must be done with great care, having previously established the degree of tolerance to the drug.

In the treatment of anxiety, the dose of the drug is 0.75-1.5 mg.

In the treatment of panic disorders, the dose of the drug is prescribed in an amount of 0.5 mg 3 times a day.

Overdose

An overdose of Alprazolam is manifested in drowsiness, confusion, impaired coordination, decreased reflexes, and coma. In some cases, a deliberate overdose of this drug can be fatal. Fatal overdose has been reported in patients who took the drug in combination with benzodiazepines, alcohol (blood alcohol level was significantly lower than the degree of alcoholization, leading to death).

Interaction with other drugs

Alprazolam while taking it with other drugs can provoke the manifestation of various reactions, including negative ones.

  • Anticonvulsants in combination with this medicine provoke an increase in the inhibitory effect of the active substance on the central nervous system.
  • Dextropropoxyphene together with Alprazolam inhibits the central nervous system.
  • Histamine H1 receptor blockers while taking with this medicine provoke an increase in the inhibitory effect of the active substance on the central nervous system.
  • Ethanol and Alprazolamom has a depressing effect on the central nervous system.
  • fluvoxamine It helps to increase the concentration in the blood plasma of the active substance.
  • While taking medication with Fluoxetineprobably an increase in the concentration of alprazolam in blood plasma.
  • Digoxin may provoke the development of intoxication with cardiac glycosides.
  • Histamine H2 receptor blockers provoke a decrease in clearance of alprazolam.
  • Psychotropic drugs have an active effect on the central nervous system.

Terms of sale

Included in the list of No. 1 potent drugs. Alprazolam is sold only by prescription (the prescription must be on a numbered form with a seal), which indicates that the patient is on special treatment.

Storage conditions

Alprazolam should be stored in a dark place at a temperature not exceeding 30 ° Celsius far from moisture.

Caution: this drug is potentially harmful to the health of the child's body.

Shelf life

The shelf life of the drug is 60 months. After this period, taking the medicine is not recommended.

Alprazolam analogues

Matches for ATX Level 4 code:BromazepamHelexRudotelReliumNozepamTazepamXanaxEleniumValium RocheTofisopamDiazepamGrandaxinMezapamSibazonSeduxenRelaniumLorazepam

The main synonyms and analogues of Alprazolam:

  • Alzolam;
  • Alprox;
  • Zolomax;
  • Kassadan
  • Kassadan
  • Xanax;
  • Neurol;
  • Neurol;
  • Frontin;
  • Helex.

Alprazolam Reviews

Reviews of doctors say about the positive effect that this drug has with properly organized treatment. Reviews of Alprazolam on patient forums also support this information. Here, for example:

Alina: “A loved one passed away and it was a big shock for me. After some time, the anxiety syndrome developed and began to think that I was going crazy, because I could neither sleep, eat, nor respond to anything normally. The doctor prescribed Alprazolam, and gradually, after several weeks of taking it, my desire to live returned and I began to react more or less normally. Now I’m still drinking the drug and I don’t see any side effects. "

Olga: “In connection with the specifics of my work, I began to notice for a long time that my mental state left much to be desired. I started to have a terrible depression, began to get rid of my relatives and in the end I realized that I needed to see a doctor. The doctor prescribed Alprazolam and I I started taking it just a week ago, but I’m already feeling better. The preparation is excellent. "

Alprazolam price, where to buy

A very common question is where to buy Alprazolam in Moscow and whether it is sold at all in the pharmacies of our country. The following is a list of pharmacies in Moscow where this drug can be purchased:

  • Pharmacy 36.6;
  • Pharmacy A.V.E;
  • Pharmacy Anti-Speed;
  • Pharmacy, LLC Agba-market;
  • Pharmacy VitaPharm;
  • Pharmacy Doctor Stoletov;
  • Pharmacy Kremlin;
  • Pharmacy First Aid;
  • Rigla Pharmacy;
  • Pharmacy Samson-Pharma;
  • Metropolitan Pharmacies;
  • Pharmacy Farmakon;
  • Central pharmacy No. 1, Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation;
  • Central Pharmacy, State Unitary Enterprise;
  • Pharmacy Evalar.

The price of Alprazolam varies from 155 rubles and above, depending on the number of tablets in the package.

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