Medication

Insulin

Structure

As a rule, in one milliliter of the drug in the form of a solution or suspension contains 40 IU of the active substance.

Part antidiabetic drugs may include insulin extracted from pancreas animals (pigs or cattle), human insulin or a biosynthetic substance obtained by genetic engineering.

The composition of the auxiliary components is different for each specific drug.

Release form

Insulin preparations are available in the form of solutions and in the form of a suspension in bottles and special cartridge systems (cartridges, cartridges and systems designed for use with a syringe pen).

Injection solution is produced in sterile glass bottles with a volume of 5 and 10 ml, with activity, as a rule, from 20 to 100 PIECES in 1 ml of solution.

The substance intended for medical use is a water-soluble, hygroscopic white powder, which contains 3.1% sulfur.

Solutions look like a clear, colorless or slightly yellowish liquid with an acidity (pH) from 2.0 to 3.5). To prepare the solution, the crystalline powder is diluted in water for injection (Aqua pro injectionibus), acidified with hydrochloric acid (Acidum hydrochloricum) with the addition of glycerin (Glycerinum) and 0.25-0.3% solution phenol (Phenolum) or tricresol (Tricresolum) for canning.

Sustained-release suspensions are delivered to pharmacies in sterile 5 and 10 ml vials. Each bottle is hermetically sealed with a rubber stopper with an aluminum cap.

Most physiological control profile hypoglycemia characterized by a two-phase drug Novomix, which is a two-phase suspension, which consists of 30% ultra-short-acting insulin aspart and 70% of protamine-crystallized insulin aspart.

To date, scientists have managed to solve the problem of the passage of insulin through the stomach (since the substance is protein, it undergoes destruction under the influence of digestive juices) and create also an effective remedy for diabetics in tablets.

Pharmachologic effect

Insulin preparations belong to the group of drugs that affect digestion and the course of metabolic processes in the body.

Endogenous insulin is essential carbohydrate metabolism regulator in the body, exogenous is a specific antipyretic.

The main functions of insulin:

  • regulation of carbohydrate metabolism;
  • stimulation of tissue uptake of glucose and the processes of its conversion into glycogen;
  • facilitating the penetration of glucose into tissue cells;
  • increased muscle glycogen stores;
  • peptide synthesis stimulation;
  • reduction in protein consumption;
  • stimulation of glucosyl transferase, polyenzyme complex of pyruvate dehydrogenase, hexokinase enzyme;
  • lipase inhibitionwhose action is aimed at the activation of fatty acids of adipose tissue;
  • lipoprotein lipase inhibitionthat reduces “clouding” blood serum after eating high fat foods.

Insulin affects carbohydrate metabolism. This is due to the fact that the substance stimulates transport. glucose across cell membranesenhances its utilization by tissues, and also contributes to its glycogen biotransformation in the liver.

Due glycogenolysis inhibition (the process by which glycogen breaks down to glucose) and gluconeogenesis (education process glucose from non-carbohydrate sources: from amino acids, fatty acids etc.) insulin suppresses production endogenous glucose.

The effect of a substance on lipid metabolism manifested in suppression lipolysis (fat breakdown). As a result, revenue is reduced free fatty acids at systemic blood flow.

Insulin prevents formation acetone (ketone) bodies in the body, stimulates fatty acid synthesis and education subsequently esters. He also takes part in protein metabolism: enhances transport amino acids across cell membranesstimulates peptide synthesisreduces tissue consumption proteinslows down the transformation process amino acids to oxocarboxylic acids.

Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics

The mechanism of action of insulin is associated with its ability to interact with a specific receptor, which is localized on plasma cell membrane, and form insulin receptor complex.

In conjunction with insulin receptor it enters the cell, where it affects the processes phospholation of cellular proteins; accurate data on further reactions within the cell to date is not.

Insulin acts on almost all organs and tissues in the human body, while its main targets are liver, muscle and adipose tissue.

How complete absorption of insulin will be and how quickly the effect of its use will occur depends on the injection site (more precisely, on the degree of blood supply to the subcutaneous fat at the injection site), the dose administered (more than 12-16 UNITS of solution should not be administered in one place) suspension), the concentration of the active substance in the preparation, such as insulin, the rate of local blood flow, muscle activity at the injection site.

The action profile of the drug is subject to significant fluctuations in both different people and the same person.

Getting into bloodinsulin binds to α and β globulins. Typically, the binding rate is in the range of 5 to 25%.

Education antibodies provokes the development of insulin resistance, however, when using modern, well-purified drugs, this phenomenon rarely occurs.

Half-life of blood does not exceed 10 minutes. Most of the trapped in blood insulin is exposed to liver and kidney enzymatic hydrolysiswhich is catalyzed proteolytic enzymes.

Excretion of a substance occurs very quickly: about 60% of it is excreted the kidneys, about 40% - the liver (40%), slightly less than 1.5% is eliminated with urine in pure form.

Indications for use

The use of insulin is indicated mainly for the treatment of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type I diabetes). In certain conditions, it is advisable to prescribe the drug to patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes (type II diabetes).

Short acting drugs are used for lower sugar in some forms schizophrenia, furunculosis, thyrotoxicosis, diseases of the stomach, chronic hepatitisin the initial stages of development cirrhosis of the liver.

In addition, they are often appointed as anabolic agents (remedies for weight gain) to patients suffering from general malnutrition and to patients experiencing nutritional deficiencies.

The tool can also be used as one of the components of the "polarizing" solutions that are used to treat acute coronary insufficiency (condition caused by coronary spasm).

Bodybuilding Insulin

It is believed that the use of insulin in sports is a real find. At the same time, the use of short-acting drugs provides the necessary effect, and, in particular, in combination with any anabolic or androgenic agent.

What happens if a healthy person injects insulin? Under the influence of the hormone rises muscle cell membrane permeability and, therefore, the penetration of these substances to the cells is accelerated and facilitated. As a result - even in the minimum dose steroids have a much more pronounced result than when they are used independently.

So, how to take insulin in bodybuilding? Firstly, do not overeat (the body stores the excess of nutrients entering it in the form fat) Secondly, reduce to the maximum. simple carbohydrates. And, thirdly, focus not on weight, but on reflection in the mirror and a centimeter tape (you need to focus on the volume of the lower leg, biceps, thigh). The appearance of folds of fat in the abdomen is evidence of an improperly selected dose.

Contraindications

Insulin should not be prescribed for diseases that occur with hypoglycemia: at hemolytic jaundice, acute hepatitis, pancreatitis, cirrhosis of the liver, jade, amyloid dystrophy, urolithiasis, decompensated heart defects; peptic ulcer, affecting the stomach and duodenum.

With caution, insulin preparations are prescribed:

  • diabetic patients in whom coronary insufficiency or impaired blood circulation in the brain;
  • patients with thyroid disease;
  • at Addison's disease (adrenocortical insufficiency, which occurs when more than 90% of the tissue is affected adrenal glands);
  • at renal failure.

Side effects

Subcutaneous administration of insulin preparations may develop lipodystrophy (pathology that is characterized atrophy or hypertrophy of adipose tissue) at the injection site.

Modern insulins are thoroughly cleaned, therefore allergic reactions against the background of their use, they develop extremely rarely, but the likelihood of such side effects is not excluded.

In case of development allergic reactions immediate type, the patient requires immediate specific hyposensitization and drug replacement.

Instructions for use of insulin

Features of the introduction of insulin

According to the instructions for use, insulin is allowed to be administered under the skin, muscle or vein. It follows that intravenous administration can be exclusively short-acting drugs and only if the patient has symptoms precomatous state or he fell into diabetic coma.

The introduction into the vein of drugs that are available in the form of a suspension is contraindicated. Before injection, the medicine should be warmed to room temperature. This is due to the fact that cold insulin is absorbed much more slowly.

It is preferable to use a plastic syringe for injection (not glass). The reason for this is that in the glass syringe the so-called “dead” space is larger than in the plastic syringes. This in turn reduces the accuracy of the dosage of the drug and leads to loss of insulin.

Convenient to use are insulin syringe pens with special cartridges filled with solution installed in them. They are used for the introduction of solutions of short, medium and mixed (combined) action. When using such systems, before administering the drug, it is not necessary to type or mix it each time.

The needles used in modern syringes and syringe pens for insulin are so thin and short that they cause slight pain during the injection. The thickness of the needle is usually from 0.3 to 0.4 mm), the length does not exceed 12 mm (usually from 8 to 12 mm).

Where to inject the drug?

The question “Where do they inject insulin?” Arises quite often.

The fastest absorption in blood flow noted after subcutaneous injection in anterior abdominal wall, more slowly the substance is absorbed into blood from the shoulder and the anterior thigh, the slowest absorption is observed after administration of the drug into the subcutaneous fat under the scapula or on the buttock.

Therefore, in clinical practice, subcutaneous injection is the optimal route of administration for continuous therapy.

Given the fact that the medicine is absorbed into the blood at different speeds from different parts of the body, doctors recommend injecting short-acting drugs (look like a clear solution) into the abdomen, while avoiding the navel, and prolonged-action drugs (turbid solution) into the region hips or buttocks.

Another important rule is that the areas of drug administration are alternated, following a strict order in accordance with the time of day (for example, in the morning a short-acting solution is injected into the stomach, during the day into the thigh area, and in the evening under the skin of the buttocks.

This is due to the fact that for different sites, the calculation of the drug for the amount of XE will be different (as at different times of the day).

Subcutaneous insulin injection algorithm

The main rules for administering insulin: before making an injection, it is necessary to check the validity of the medicine, its type, duration and dosage, wash your hands and ensure that the injection site is clean;

The technique for administering insulin is as follows:

  • Before administration, the drug is warmed in the hands to room temperature. The bottle is not allowed to shake, as this is fraught with the formation of bubbles.
  • The bottle cap is wiped with 70º alcohol.
  • They draw in the air syringe for the required number of units of insulin, then inject it into the vial, collect the required dose of the drug + up to 10 ED more.
  • The dose of the solution is regulated by holding the syringe at eye level (if you change the angle, a visual error of 1-5ED is possible)
  • Shaking the bottle, remove the bubbles.
  • Do not treat the skin at the injection site with alcohol, since alcohol destroys insulin and, as a result, the patient may form lipodystrophy. If this is necessary, it is enough to simply wash the skin and wipe it dry. Allowed the introduction of the drug through clothing.
  • An injection is made in the recommended areas of drug administration: 2.5 cm from the navel, 3 cm from the shoulder, thigh, upper part of the buttock. The skin fold is formed with the thumb and forefinger so as not to capture the muscle layer (when it enters the muscle, the medicine is absorbed into the blood faster than from the subcutaneous layer). The following illustration shows how to properly capture the skin:

  • The solution should be administered half an hour before a meal (insulin is absorbed within an hour, so a meal should be about 15-30 minutes after the injection).

How to put a syringe during an injection

The needle is inserted into the skin at an angle of 45º if the injection is done into the skin fold, at an angle of 90º if the injection is done without a skin fold.

A fold is formed if the drug is supposed to be injected into the shoulder or thigh, a fold is not made if the drug is supposed to be injected into the abdomen or buttocks (since there is a thick layer of subcutaneous tissue).

How to prick the drug?

After administering the medicine, it is necessary to count to 5 (or 10), pull out the needle and press down the injection site with your finger. Do not massage! Due to rapid absorption may develop hypoglycemia.

Video instruction on how to prick insulin with a pen

What is the best insulin?

There is no single answer to this question. The initial selection of insulin (as well as the dose and administration of the drug) is carried out in a hospital, depending on the severity of the disease and the characteristics of the clinical situation, the general condition of the patient, the speed of onset hypoglycemic effect and the duration of its action.

Dose calculation and insulin administration

The dose of the drug is selected individually in each case.

Short-acting drugs are intended for administration under the skin or muscle (in some cases, intravenous administration is allowed). These solutions act quickly, the effect of their use is relatively short.

Short-acting insulins are administered 15-20 minutes before meals from one to several times (depending on the characteristics of the disease) during the day. Sugar reducing effect develops after 15-20 minutes and reaches its maximum after 2 hours (while the total duration of action does not exceed 6 hours).

Medicines of this type are used mainly in a hospital in order to establish the dose necessary for the patient, as well as with diabetic coma and precom(conditions that require a quick change in insulin activity in the body).

In addition, short-acting solutions are used as anabolic agents. For this purpose, they are usually used in small doses (from 4 to 8 units once or twice a day).

Long-acting (prolonged) drugs have several dosage forms and are characterized by different duration of the effect (for example, insulin emit Semylong, Long, Ultralong).

As a rule, the effect is noted within 10-36 hours. The use of this type of drug can reduce the number of daily injections.

Most often, long-acting insulins are a suspension. They are administered under the skin or into the muscle, intravenous administration is unacceptable. It is also forbidden to use drugs from this group when coma and precoma.

When choosing a drug, you need to ensure that the period during which sugar lowering effectmost pronounced, coincided in time with the reception write.

If this is necessary, it is allowed to mix two long-acting drugs in the same syringe at the same time.

In some cases, patients need not only long-term maintenance of the required level glucose, but also in its quick normalization. To do this, they are prescribed the introduction of drugs of both short and long action.

As a rule, an injection of a suspension of prolonged action is done in the morning, before the first meal, but administration at a different time of the day is allowed.

Injections recommend that patients combine with a special diet for diabetics. The energy value of food in each case should be determined by the patient’s body weight during treatment and the degree of his physical activity.

With a lack of nutrition and increased physical activity, the patient is shown to consume at least 3,000 kilocalories per day, with excessive nutrition and physical inactivity the number of calories should not exceed 2000 (optimally - approximately 1700).

How to put medicine into an insulin syringe?

If you want to enter one type of insulin, the syringe piston is pulled back to the mark corresponding to the required number of units, after which the stopper of the vial with the drug is punctured and, having pressed the piston, they let air into it.

Next, turn the bottle with the syringe upside down and, holding them in one hand at eye level, pull the piston down to a mark slightly above the desired dose.

A puncture in a cork with a medicine is best done in its very center, using a thick needle for ordinary syringes. To inject air and collect the medicine, an insulin syringe is already used - its needle is inserted into the puncture site.

If air bubbles are visible in the injected syringe, you need to slightly click your fingers on the syringe and carefully move the piston to the mark of the desired dose.

Insulin dose calculation

Calculation and administration of the dose of the drug is carried out, starting from the fact that the highest daily dose of the drug should not exceed 1 unit per kilogram of patient body weight.

Recommendations on how to correctly calculate the dose of a drug are given depending on the characteristics of the course of the disease.

In diabetes I degree, the dose is:

  • 0.5 PIECES / kg - to patients in whom the disease was discovered recently;
  • 0.6 PIECES / kg - if the compensation lasts for a year or more;
  • 0.7 PIECES / kg - in case of unstable compensation;
  • 0.8 PIECES / kg - in case of decompensation;
  • 0.9 PIECES / kg - if the disease is complicated ketoacidosis;
  • 1.0 units / kg for women in the last 3 months of pregnancy.

How to calculate the dose of insulin and not make a mistake? To avoid mistakes, you can focus on the example below.

Calculation for long-acting drugs at a dose of 0.6 PIECES / kg and a patient's weight of 75 kg: 0.6 * 75 = 45. It is necessary to take 50% of the resulting value and round it down (to 20). Thus, before the morning meal, you should enter 12 units, and the remaining 8 - before the evening.

The correct calculation for short-acting drugs at a dose of 0.6 U / kg and a patient weight of 75 kg is made according to the formula: 0.6 * 75 = 45; 45-20 = 25. Therefore, from 9 to 11 units must be entered before a morning meal, from 6 to 8 units before lunch, the remainder from 4 to 6 units before dinner.

Overdose

Exceeding the dose prescribed by the doctor inevitably provokes the development hypoglycemic syndromewhich is accompanied low blood sugar and can cause death for the patient.

With the introduction of a lethal dose, the patient must immediately provide first aid.

Symptoms hyperglycemic The conditions are:

  • feeling of thirst;
  • increased urination;
  • fatigue;
  • increased dryness of the oral mucosa and skin;
  • itchy skin;
  • blurred vision;
  • impaired consciousness;
  • arrhythmia;
  • precoma;
  • coma.

The consequence of an overdose of insulin is impaired brain function(which is particularly dangerous for the elderly). The patient may develop paralysis or paresis, significantly reduced mental abilities.

It should also be remembered that high doses harm vessels. Against the background of their application arterial elasticity decreases and cerebral blood flow worsens.

In the initial stages hypoglycemia sweet tea, the use of honey or fruit juice will help normalize sugar levels.

At coma immediate injection of 10-20 ml of concentrated solution into a vein is required glucose (20-40%). If there is no opportunity to enter the solution into a vein, it is allowed to do:

  • intramuscular injection 1-2 mg glucagon (glucagon is a physiological insulin antagonist);
  • subcutaneous injection of 0.5 ml epinephrine hydrochloride a solution of 0.1%;
  • enema using 150 ml of 10% solution glucose.

Interaction

Sugar reducing effect amplified by the use of insulin in combination with:

  • α-adrenergic blockers;
  • acetylsalicylic acid;
  • clofibrate;
  • fluoxetine;
  • MAO inhibitors;
  • cyclophosphamide;
  • methyldopa;
  • tetracyclines;
  • ifosfamide.

Sugar-lowering effect is reduced when using the drug in combination with:

  • chlorprothixene;
  • oral contraceptives;
  • GKS;
  • diazoxide;
  • heparin;
  • lithium carbonate;
  • saluretics;
  • nicotinic acid and its derivatives;
  • thyroid hormones;
  • diphenin;
  • sympathomimetics;
  • tricyclic antidepressants.

Terms of sale

On prescription. Latin insulin prescription should be prescribed by your healthcare provider.

Storage conditions

How to store insulin?

The drug is stored in a dark, cool place. The optimum temperature for storage is considered to be a temperature from +2 to +8 degrees Celsius (best in the refrigerator, away from the freezer).

Freezing drugs from this group, as well as excessive heating, is unacceptable.

A temperature above 30-35 degrees Celsius is harmful to the medicine.

For people leading an active lifestyle, the best solution is a thermo bag for insulin.

When is a drug considered spoiled?

In case of violation of at least one storage condition, the drug should be discarded. Also, a solution that for one reason or another has changed its color, and a solution in which lumps, suspensions, and fibers have not been used.

A suspension is considered spoiled if, with stirring, it does not form a homogeneous white or whitish suspension.

It is important to remember that only insulins of ultrashort, short and fast action should remain transparent and, in addition, also insulin glargine prolonged action.

Shelf life

The drug is suitable for use within 24 months from the date of release.

Subject to storage conditions, an opened vial of insulin is suitable for use within a month.

Special instructions

What is insulin?

Wikipedia indicates that the hormone insulin is a substance that has a multifaceted effect on the course of metabolic processes in almost all tissues.

Immunoreactive insulin makes plasma membranes more permeable to glucose, which provides a faster and easier transition of the latter from the blood to the intracellular space.

A lack of insulin synthesis causes metabolic disturbances, which as a result leads to the development of diabetes mellitus.

Immunoreactive insulin - what is it? Which organ produces insulin?

To the questions “what kind of iron does insulin produce?” Or “where is insulin produced?” Wikipedia answers that the hormone insulin is produced by β-cells of the islets of Langerhans (located mainly in the tail pancreas(Pancreas) accumulations of endocrine cells).

The hormone synthesized by the body is called insulin or immunoreactive insulin (abbreviated as IRI).

The initial source for the production of insulin preparations, which provide the opportunity to lead a normal lifestyle to people whose body does not produce the hormone on its own in the quantities it needs, are pancreas pigs and cattle.

A little over 30 years ago to treat patients diabetes started using human insulin. To obtain it, resort to one of two methods:

  • transformation method of porcine insulin, which involves the replacement of the amino acids contained in it alanine on threonine;
  • genetic engineering method, which involves changing a specific section of DNA.

Classification of insulin preparations

Currently used drugs are usually divided according to a number of signs:

  • by duration of action;
  • by source of origin;
  • depending on the pH of the solution (may be neutral or acidic);
  • the presence of preservatives in the preparation (phenol, methyl paraben, cresol, phenol-cresol);
  • depending on the concentration of insulin (40, 80, 100, 200, 500 units per ml).

Classification according to duration of action:

  • ultrashort preparations;
  • short-acting drugs;
  • long-acting drugs (including medium-duration (intermediate) and long-acting);
  • long-acting drugs;
  • drugs of combined action (biphasic drugs).

Ultrashort action characterized by lizpro, aspart, as well as glulisin.

Short-acting insulin, names:

  • soluble human genetic engineering insulin;
  • soluble human semi-synthetic;
  • soluble pork monocomponent.

Intermediate insulin is insulin isophane (human genetic engineering); insulin isophane (human semi-synthetic); insulin zinc compound suspension.

What types of long-acting insulin? This category includes glargine and detemir.

Biphasic preparations - biphasic human semi-synthetic; biphasic human genetic engineering; aspart two-phase.

In accordance with the classification, depending on the degree of purification, preparations obtained from animal tissues are divided into:

  • monopic (MP);
  • monocomponent (MK).

Types of insulin depending on origin:

  • pork (denoted by the letter C; monopic - SMP, monocomponent - QMS);
  • cattle (beef, denoted by the letter G; monopic - GMF, monocomponent - GMK);
  • human (denoted by the letter H).

Blood insulin level - normal and deviation from it

An indicator that displays the level of the hormone in blood a healthy person, is in the range of 3 to 20 μU / ml.

Its reduction is a prerequisite for development diabetes mellitus. In this case, the cause of serious consequences may be an excess of homon in the blood.

Increased insulin in the blood - what does it mean?

Insulin inhibits the process synthesis of glucose from proteins and lipids. Thus, with an increase in the hormone concentration of more than 20 μU / ml (hyperinsulinism), the person, as well as with insulin deficiency, begins to appear symptoms hypoglycemia - irritability increases, memory worsens and concentration of attention decreases, general fatigue increases (over time, it becomes chronic), increases blood pressure etc…

Causes of Increased Insulin

If insulin is elevated in blood, the reason may be that the person has eaten too much food rich in carbohydrates (i.e. glucose).

Since carbohydrate-containing products contribute to a sharp increase in the level of the hormone, you should not eat before donating blood for analysis for an insulin test (analysis blood do on an empty stomach).

Dysfunction can also provoke an increase in hormone levels. pancreatic β-cells (in this case, they speak of primary, pancreatic, hyperinsulinism), as well as impaired secretion of some other hormones (for example catecholamines or corticotropin), damage to the nervous systemhypersensitivity insulin receptors (in all these cases, the diagnosis is “secondary, or extrapancreatic, hyperinsulinism”).

Cause dysfunction ПЖЖwhile becoming the cause of high insulin, they can:

  • tumors on ПЖЖthat contribute to the production of the hormone;
  • decrease in the concentration produced in the body glucagon;
  • hyperplasia of islets of Langerhans.

Also, increased insulin is often noted with excess weight. An increase in hormone concentration indicates that ПЖЖworks with extra load.

How to lower blood insulin concentration

Before treating increased insulin, it is necessary to establish the cause that provoked it. As a rule, after its elimination, the patient's condition returns to normal.

To avoid an attack hypoglycemiaeat something sweet or inject a solution glucose. In severe cases, administration may be necessary. glucagon or adrenaline.

How to lower the level of the hormone at home? To normalize insulin levels, you should first adjust your diet. The food should be fractional (it is optimal to eat in small portions at least five times a day), and the daily amount of carbohydrate foods should not exceed 150 g.

At the same time, oatmeal, buckwheat porridge, fat-free kefir and milk, unsweetened cottage cheese, bran, eggs, vegetables, fish, individual fruits should predominate in the diet.

Normalization of indicators also contribute to physical activity and weight loss.

What sugar is insulin prescribed for?

An analysis to determine the concentration of the hormone for differentiating the form of the disease is done to people who have not received insulin preparations before. This is due to the fact that the body responds to the introduction of exogenous hormone by the production of antibodies.

High sugar levels are one of the symptoms. metabolic syndrome. The condition is regarded as prediabetes.

If insulin is elevated and sugar is normal, talk about insulin-resistant form of glucose intolerance and diabetes. This may also indicate a number of other insulin resistant conditions.

High levels with low sugar are often an indicator pathological hyperinsulinemia. In some cases, high concentrations of circulating blood hormones associated with hypertension, heart and vascular diseases.

A low level with normal sugar also requires an endocrinologist to determine the cause of this condition and perform the necessary tests (HLI typing, testing for antibodies to insulin, determining the level of antibodies to GAD, testing for glycated hemoglobin).

The decision about the need for injections is made, starting not from indicators of the level of sugar, but taking into account the reasons that provoked such an increase.

As a rule, the introduction of the drug becomes inevitable if the blood sugar levels are kept for a long time within 12 mmol / l, and tablets and a strict diet do not lead to their decrease.

The decryption of a blood test for insulin allows you to get the data you need for a doctor.

The norm in women and men is the same. Indicators of 3.3-7.8 mmol / l indicate noormoglycemia. The norm of blood sugar on an empty stomach is from 3.3 to 5.5 mmol / l. After a meal, a figure that does not exceed 7.8 mmol / L is considered normal.

The norm of insulin after glucose loading is up to 7.7 mmol / l. If the indicator is in the range of 7.8-11.1 mmol / l, they speak of impaired glucose tolerance.

Analogs

Matches for ATX Level 4 code:BiosulinApidraProtafanHumalogueHumulin RegularHumulin M3Humulin NPHActrapid

Humalogue (insulin lispro), insulin Levemir, Humulin NPH, Humulin R, Humulin Minsulin Apidrainsulin Humalog Mix 50insulin Tape (NM and NGN), NovoRapid Flexpeninsulin Protafan NM Penfillinsulin Aktrapidinsulin Rapid (Insuman Rapid GT), insulin Basal-nRecombinant human insulin etc ...

Insulin and alcohol

The drug reduces alcohol tolerance. With simultaneous use with alcoholic beverages, the risk of hypoglycemia also increases.

Pregnancy insulin

Treatment restrictions diabetes mellitus with the use of insulin during pregnancy and lactation no.

Reviews

Many people diagnosed diabetes, search forums for information on a particular drug, asking for reviews about insulin Lantus or, for example, insulin reviews Levemire.

However, it is extremely important to remember that the selection of the type of drug and the optimal dose is carried out exclusively by the attending physician. Adequate therapy is the key to the fact that the patient will be able to lead a normal, full-fledged lifestyle, so self-medication is unacceptable.

Some patients believe that insulin does not help, and its administration is accompanied in some cases by complications. The medicine has a pronounced effect on the body with low blood glucose.

Taking it in the early stages of the development of the disease, and not as a last resort, helps to prevent or somewhat delay potential complications.

Besides people with diabetes, reviews about the drug are left by fans of heavy sports. Focusing on them, we can conclude that in bodybuilding, the tool has established itself as an unsurpassed anabolic.

Insulin price

The cost in pharmacies varies depending on the manufacturer and the characteristics of a particular drug. So, for example, the price of insulin Actrapid in Ukraine - from 166 to 435 UAH, and NovoRapid FlexPen You can buy an average of 850 UAH (more accurately find out how much insulin costs you can by contacting a particular pharmacy).

Insulin price Lantus in large cities of Ukraine (for example, in Kiev or Donetsk) - approximately 1050 UAH, buy insulin NovoRapid possible for 780-900 UAH, price Protafana NM - from 177 UAH, Humalogue - from 760 to 1135 UAH, a bottle with the drug Insuman Bazal will cost about 72 UAH, the price of insulin Levemip - from 1280 UAH.

The average price of a syringe pen and packing needles for it is 800-850 UAH. Buy insulin pen NovoPen 4 possible for about 700 UAH, but the cost of a pen NovoPen Echo - about 1000 UAH.

Insulin tablets (drug Novonorm) costs from 150 to 200 UAH.

You can buy medicine in ordinary pharmacies, online pharmacies, as well as through forums for communicating with diabetics, where “buy / sell” ads are often found. Through these same resources, insulin can also be sold.

Where to buy insulin in Moscow and St. Petersburg? The medicine is sold in almost all pharmacies, information on them is regularly updated on the Internet.

  • Online Pharmacies in Russia
  • Online pharmacies in Kazakhstan

ZdravCity

  • Monoinsulin HR 100 IU / ml solution for injection 10 ml №1 RUUP Belmedpreparaty430 rub.order
  • Humapen ergo ii pen injector for insulin administration, for repeated use with insulin cartridges of 3.0ml each Tech Group Tempe 1,996 rub.order

Pharmacy Dialog

  • Actrapid NM (insulin) bottle 100ME / ml 10ml383 rub.order
  • Protafan insulin NM vial 100ME / ml 10ml404 rub.order
show more

BIOSPHERE

  • Accu-Chek Spirit insulin cartridge system 3.15 ml 5 pcs. packaged by Roche Diabetes Care GmbH. (Germany) 17 tg.order
  • The needle is one-time. BD Micro Fine Plus to insulin. injections. 30G 0.30 x 8 mm No. 100 Becton Dickenson & Company Limited (Ireland) 6 tg.
  • Accu-Chek ComboRoche Diabetes Care GmbH insulin monitoring system with the ability to administer insulin. (Germany) 649 tenge to order
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Medication

Gelmadol

Composition In one tablet of Gelmadol contains 200 mg micronized albendazole and such auxiliary compounds as lactose monohydrate, corn starch, magnesium stearate, sodium starch glycolate, sodium lauryl sulfate, crospovidone, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyethylene glycol caliphyl hydroxypropylene, hydroxypropylene and hydroxypropylene.
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Pimafukort
Medication

Pimafukort

Composition The number of biologically active components does not change at all depending on the form of release of the pharmaceutical preparation. Both in the cream and in the ointment, the main ratio is preserved: natamycin - 10 mg; neomycin sulfate - 3500 units; micronized hydrocortisone - 10 mg.What really distinguishes the variations in the forms of release to a significant extent is the excipients, there are much more of them in the cream, which indicates a more selective effect of the drug.
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